The map shows the mean annual concentrations of total phosphorus (P) as mg/l P in European lakes and reservoirs measured at Eionet-Water Lake monitoring stations. Total phosphorus includes all phosphorus components in lake water: phosphate dissolved organic phosphorus and particulate phosphorus in algal and bacterial cells, as well as in mineral particles (e.g. clay).  For most countries the concentration values  are based on measurements over the whole year, but for some countries the annual mean actually represents only the growing season (due to ice cover in winter).The purpose of the map is to provide an overview of the annual concentrations of the total phosphorus in lakes across Europe and to enable viewer to make comparisons of the values in European countries, River basin districts or in individual monitoring sites.High or increased (compared to reference condition) concentration of total phosphorus represents a risk to normal functioning of lake ecosystems, causing eutrophication with potentially harmful or toxic algal blooms in the surface waters, reduced biodiversity, and oxygen deficiency in the bottom waters.The data on the concentration of total phosphorus in lakes are displayed in the following 3 layers:·   Mean annual phosphorus in lakes by country·   Mean annual phosphorus in lakes National River Basin District·   Mean annual phosphorus in lakes by stationLayer: Mean annual phosphorus in lakes by country displays the distribution of mean TP in lakes per country across all the categories of total phosphorus concentrations, expressed as one pie chart for each country. The size of each segment of the pie charts is proportional to the number of stations with total phosphorus concentrations falling within defined concentration classifications. The segments are coloured according to the different concentration classifications. The aggregated information is available at the scale less detailed than 1: 6 000 000.Layer: Mean annual phosphorus in lakes by National River Basin District displays the National RBDs, coloured according to their classification of the TP concentrations in lakes, at the European level.Layer: Mean annual phosphorus in lakes by station displays the location of the Eionet-Water Lake stations where TP was monitored. Station points are coloured according to different categories of TP concentrations (as shown in the legend on the left-hand side of the map). Specifically, the limit between good and moderate ecological status, according to the Water Framework Directive, is for many lake types <0.02 mg/L (level 1 or blue colour on the map), but for very shallow (mean depth < 3m), highly alkaline (alk > 1 mekv/L) lakes can be as high as 0.05 mg/L (level 2 or yellow colour on the map). For the Eastern continental region this limit has not yet been set. Symbol size depends on the map scale (more detailed map = bigger symbols). The information is available at the scale 1: 6 000 000 and more detailed.

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